Minerals of Pakistan 9th Class Pakistan Studies Notes

Important Minerals

There are three types of minerals.
Metallic Minerals

1. Iron ore.
2. Chromites.
3. Copper etc.
Non-Metallic Minerals

1. Rock Salt.
2. Limestone.
3. Gypsum.
4. Marble, Gemstone, China Clay, Fire Clay, Sulphure etc.
Power Resource Minerals

1. Coal.
2. Natural Gas.
3. Crude Oil etc.

We have not yet discovered coal which can be used in engines. It is mostly used in manufacturing Calcium Carbonate and bricks. Some coal is also used in homes. We have got coal from various spots places but it is not of good quality. It fulfils 10% of our needs.

The biggest mines of coal is Salt Ranges in Kohistan in the region of Makarwat in Punjab. In these regions coal is also found in Dundot and Pudh. Like Makarwal some mines are such whose tunnels are about nine miles long. In the province of Balochistan many reservoirs are found at other places. Coalmines are in Sharg, Hoset, Hernai, Sar, Dagari, Sheeren Aab, Bolan, Aab and Mush. Processing plant is also set in Shargh. In the lower regions of Sindh mines of Jhimpir and Lakhra are important. Government is in search of more mines.
Mineral Oil

Minerals oil is very important in modern age. It is used in factories, industries and transport. Motorcars, tractors, train truck etc depending upon this oil. It is also used in homes. Average production of oil in Pakistan cannot meet its needs. We are getting 10% oil for our needs and the rest of the oil is imported on which we spend a large amount of foreign exchange. Experts say that at certain we can get oil from the sea. For this purpose we started digging in 1985 at the coast of our sea in Karachi. At certain other places are digging our earth. If we succeed we shall satisfy our need of oil from our our resources.

We are getting oil from Khor, Bhullian, Tut, Kot Sarug, Miyal, Dherznund (District Attock), Kazian (District Rawalpindi), Dhodak (District Dera Ghazi Khan), Kursal ( District Jhelum), and Khushkhali (District Badeen). The oil obtained from Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal districts is refined in Morgah Refinery near Rawalpindi. Refinery means the industry where crude oil is refined for different purposes.
Natural Gas

Natural gas is an important discovery. We meet 35% of our need of energy from this gas. This gas is brought in Lahore, Karachi, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Peshawar and other cities by means of pipelines. This gas is used in Industries and also in our homes as fuel. Fine type of fertilizer is prepared in Multan by using this gas. This gas is aslo used in manufacturing Rayon thread and Chemical materials.

The reservoirs of natural gas are in Sui, Uch, Zin, Kherpur, Muzrani, Hindi, Kundkot, Sarung, Dhodak, Peerkoh and Dhullian.
Iron Ore

Iran ore is very important for the progress of a country. We have set up a steel mill in Karachi with the cooperation of Russia. In Pakistan, iron is not of good quality so it is imported to meet our needs.

The biggest reservoir of iron is found in Kala Bagh. Some are also found in Chitral, Khuzdar, Chulgari and Muslim Bagh. Iron obtained from Chitral and Nokundi is of good quality. Our iron fulfills only 16% of our needs.
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It is used in manufacturing electric goods especially electric wires. In past it was only used in making coins and utensils.

Its reservoirs are in provinces of Balochistan and Frontier. In Balochistan it is found in Saindak, Chaghi and some other places. These reservoirs are refined by progressive corporation of natural resources. Corporation is working on this plan with cooperation of foreign experts. The work has been started on crude metal in Saindak and Karachi Laboratory.
Saindak Copper Project

In Balochistan, large deposits of copper, gold and silver have been discovered at saindak, Chagai and Amuri. The economy of Pakistan is depended on these projects. China is collaborating with Pakistan on these projects. According to an estimate saindak will give annual production as below.
Copper = 16,000 Tones
Gold = 1.5 Tones
Silver = 2.75 Tones

It is a white metal which is used to make iron. It is also used in manufacturing certain instruments, aero planes and colours. It is also used in the art of photography. It is exported to get large amount of foreign exchange.

Its reservoirs are the biggest of the world in found Pakistan. Theses reservoirs are found in Muslim Bagh. Small reservoirs are found in Chaghi, Kharan, Malakand, Mehmund and North Waziristan.
Rock Salt (Non-Metallic)

Pakistan has vast reserves of salt. It is used in various eatables, the biggest is Khewra Mine. The area of this mine is about 10500 square meters. It is producing high quality of salt from centuries. Another mine is in Khushah. We aslo get salt from mines of Kala Bagh, Jutta and Bahadur Khail. We get salt from seawater near Maripur and Coast of Makran. This sea salt is used to preserve fish and is in some industrial uses. The annual production during the year 2000-01 was 1275 tonnes.
Lime Stone

Limestone is very useful raw material for cement industry. It is found in the northern and western mountain areas of Pakistan mostly. Large deposits are found in Daudthail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi. The annual production of limestone is 9.9 thousand tonnes.

It is a bright stone of white colour. It is an important wealth of our country. It is used in manufacturing cement, chemical fertilizer and plaster of Paris, Sulphuric Acid and Ammonium Sulphate. It is also used in small industries. The annual production of Gypsum is 358.5 thousand tonnes approximately.

It is obtained from Salt range and western mountainous areas of Pakistan. The important mines of Gypsum are in Khewra, Dandot, Daudkhail, Rohri and Kohat.

It is a very beautiful stone of white or black colour. It is used in the floores or walls of building to make them attractive and beautiful. A large quantity of white and black marble is found in Cambelpur near Faith Jung in Kala Chitta Hills. District Muzaffarabad and Mirpur of Azad Kashmir are other important areas where marble is found. The annual production of marble is 586.6 thousand tonnes.

In our country marble is of various types. The best in Khyber Agency at Mullah Gori. It is Swat, Noshera, Hazara, Gilgit and Chaghi.

It is the necassary part of explosive material. It is very important for the defence of a country. It is also used in making Sulphuric Acid and many other chemicals. We get crude Sulphur which is made useful by our experts. Soon we will be able to meet our needs of Sulphur. After cleaning Sulphur, it is also used chemical industries. Industries are being set up in Quetta and Karachi.

Its reserves are found in Koh-e-Sultan (District Chaghi) and (District Karachi).
China Clay

China clays is found in Mangora (District Swat) and Nagar Parkar (Sindh).
Fire Clay

It is used in making strong bricks which is used in Kiln of bricks.

It is found in Kohistan Nimak and Kala Citta Hills. Its reserves also are found in Swat, Hazara and Malakand. In Pakistan clay making Chini utensils are also found. This clay is also used in making tiles and sanitary ware. Its reserves are in Swat, Hazara and Malakund.
Calcium Carbonate

It is used in manufacturing cement, sugar and certain other materials. It is also used for the preparation of white wash stone by burning it.

Its reservoirs are found in several parts of our country. Its vast reservoirs are Dandot, Daudkhail, Wah, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi

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